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# Posts Tagged ‘Fermi temperature’

## An updated compilation of notes, for ‘PHY452H1S Basic Statistical Mechanics’, Taught by Prof. Arun Paramekanti

Posted by peeterjoot on March 27, 2013

Here’s my second update of my notes compilation for this course, including all of the following:

March 27, 2013 Fermi gas

March 26, 2013 Fermi gas thermodynamics

March 26, 2013 Fermi gas thermodynamics

March 23, 2013 Relativisitic generalization of statistical mechanics

March 21, 2013 Kittel Zipper problem

March 18, 2013 Pathria chapter 4 diatomic molecule problem

March 17, 2013 Gibbs sum for a two level system

March 16, 2013 open system variance of N

March 16, 2013 probability forms of entropy

March 14, 2013 Grand Canonical/Fermion-Bosons

March 13, 2013 Quantum anharmonic oscillator

March 12, 2013 Grand canonical ensemble

March 11, 2013 Heat capacity of perturbed harmonic oscillator

March 10, 2013 Langevin small approximation

March 10, 2013 Addition of two one half spins

March 10, 2013 Midterm II reflection

March 07, 2013 Thermodynamic identities

March 06, 2013 Temperature

March 05, 2013 Interacting spin

plus everything detailed in the description of my first update and before.

## PHY452H1S Basic Statistical Mechanics. Lecture 17: Fermi gas thermodynamics. Taught by Prof. Arun Paramekanti

Posted by peeterjoot on March 26, 2013

[Click here for a PDF of this post with nicer formatting (especially if my latex to wordpress script has left FORMULA DOES NOT PARSE errors.)]

# Disclaimer

Peeter’s lecture notes from class. May not be entirely coherent.

# Fermi gas thermodynamics

• Energy was found to be \begin{aligned}\frac{E}{N} = \frac{3}{5} \epsilon_{\mathrm{F}}\qquad \text{where} \quad T = 0.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.2.1)

• Pressure was found to have the form fig. 1.1

• The chemical potential was found to have the form fig. 1.2. \begin{aligned}e^{\beta \mu} = \rho \lambda_{\mathrm{T}}^3\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.2a) \begin{aligned}\lambda_{\mathrm{T}} = \frac{h}{\sqrt{ 2 \pi m k_{\mathrm{B}} T}},\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.2b)

so that the zero crossing is approximately when \begin{aligned}e^{\beta \times 0} = 1 = \rho \lambda_{\mathrm{T}}^3.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.3)

That last identification provides the relation $T \sim T_{\mathrm{F}}$. FIXME: that bit wasn’t clear to me.

How about at other temperatures?

• $\mu(T) = ?$
• $E(T) = ?$
• $C_{\mathrm{V}}(T) = ?$ \begin{aligned}N = \sum_k \frac{1}{{e^{\beta (\epsilon_k - \mu)} + 1}} = \sum_{\mathbf{k}} n_{\mathrm{F}}(\epsilon_\mathbf{k})\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.4) \begin{aligned}E(T) =\sum_k \epsilon_\mathbf{k} n_{\mathrm{F}}(\epsilon_\mathbf{k}).\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.5)

FIXME: references to earlier sections where these were derived.

We can define a density of states \begin{aligned}\sum_\mathbf{k} &= \sum_\mathbf{k} \int_{-\infty}^\infty d\epsilon \delta(\epsilon - \epsilon_\mathbf{k}) \\ &= \int_{-\infty}^\infty d\epsilon \sum_\mathbf{k}\delta(\epsilon - \epsilon_\mathbf{k}),\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.6)

where the liberty to informally switch the order of differentiation and integration has been used. This construction allows us to write a more general sum \begin{aligned}\sum_\mathbf{k} f(\epsilon_\mathbf{k}) &= \sum_\mathbf{k} \int_{-\infty}^\infty d\epsilon \delta(\epsilon - \epsilon_\mathbf{k}) f(\epsilon_\mathbf{k}) \\ &= \sum_\mathbf{k}\int_{-\infty}^\infty d\epsilon \delta(\epsilon - \epsilon_\mathbf{k})f(\epsilon_\mathbf{k}) \\ &=\int_{-\infty}^\infty d\epsilon f(\epsilon_\mathbf{k})\left( \sum_\mathbf{k} \delta(\epsilon - \epsilon_\mathbf{k}) \right).\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.7)

This sum, evaluated using a continuum approximation, is \begin{aligned}N(\epsilon ) &\equiv \sum_\mathbf{k}\delta(\epsilon - \epsilon_\mathbf{k}) \\ &= \frac{V}{(2 \pi)^3} \int d^3 \mathbf{k} \delta\left( \epsilon - \frac{\hbar^2 k^2}{2 m} \right) \\ &= \frac{V}{(2 \pi)^3} 4 \pi \int_0^\infty k^2 dk \delta\left( \epsilon - \frac{\hbar^2 k^2}{2 m} \right)\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.8)

Using \begin{aligned}\delta(g(x)) = \sum_{x_0} \frac{\delta(x - x_0)}{\left\lvert {g'(x_0)} \right\rvert},\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.9)

where the roots of $g(x)$ are $x_0$, we have \begin{aligned}N(\epsilon ) &= \frac{V}{(2 \pi)^3} 4 \pi \int_0^\infty k^2 dk \delta\left( k - \frac{\sqrt{2 m \epsilon }}{\hbar} \right)\frac{m \hbar }{ \hbar^2 \sqrt{2 m \epsilon }} \\ &= \frac{V}{(2 \pi)^3} 2 \pi \frac{2 m \epsilon }{\hbar^2}\frac{2 m \hbar }{ \hbar^2 \sqrt{2 m \epsilon }} \\ &= V \left( \frac{2 m}{\hbar^2} \right)^{3/2} \frac{1}{{4 \pi^2}} \sqrt{\epsilon }.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.10)

In 2D this would be \begin{aligned}N(\epsilon ) \sim V \int dk k \delta \left( \epsilon - \frac{\hbar^2 k^2}{2m} \right) = V \frac{\sqrt{2 m \epsilon }}{\hbar} \frac{m \hbar}{\hbar^2 \sqrt{ 2 m \epsilon }} \sim V\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.11)

and in 1D \begin{aligned}N(\epsilon ) &\sim V \int dk \delta \left( \epsilon - \frac{\hbar^2 k^2}{2m} \right) \\ &= V \frac{m \hbar}{\hbar^2 \sqrt{ 2 m \epsilon }} \\ &\sim \frac{1}{{\sqrt{\epsilon }}}.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.12)

What happens when we have linear energy momentum relationships?

Suppose that we have a linear energy momentum relationship like \begin{aligned}\epsilon_\mathbf{k} = v \left\lvert {\mathbf{k}} \right\rvert.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.13)

An example of such a relationship is the high velocity relation between the energy and momentum of a particle \begin{aligned}\epsilon_\mathbf{k} = \sqrt{ m_0^2 c^4 + p^2 c^2 } \sim \left\lvert {\mathbf{p}} \right\rvert c.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.14)

Another example is graphene, a carbon structure of the form fig. 1.3. The energy and momentum for such a structure is related in roughly as shown in fig. 1.4, where \begin{aligned}\epsilon_\mathbf{k} = \pm v_{\mathrm{F}} \left\lvert {\mathbf{k}} \right\rvert.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.15)

Continuing with the 3D case we have

FIXME: Is this (or how is this) related to the linear energy momentum relationships for Graphene like substances? \begin{aligned}N = V \int_0^\infty\underbrace{n_{\mathrm{F}}(\epsilon )}_{1/(e^{\beta (\epsilon - \mu)} + 1)}\underbrace{N(\epsilon )}_{\epsilon ^{1/2}}\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.16) \begin{aligned}\rho &= \frac{N}{V} \\ &= \left( \frac{2m}{\hbar^2 } \right)^{3/2} \frac{1}{{ 4 \pi^2}}\int_0^\infty d\epsilon \frac{\epsilon ^{1/2}}{z^{-1} e^{\beta \epsilon } + 1} \\ &= \left( \frac{2m}{\hbar^2 } \right)^{3/2} \frac{1}{{ 4 \pi^2}}\left( k_{\mathrm{B}} T \right)^{3/2}\int_0^\infty dx \frac{x^{1/2}}{z^{-1} e^{x} + 1}\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.17)

where $z = e^{\beta \mu}$ as usual, and we write $x = \beta \epsilon$. For the low temperature asymptotic behavior see  appendix section E. For $z$ large it can be shown that this is \begin{aligned}\int_0^\infty dx \frac{x^{1/2}}{z^{-1} e^{x} + 1}\approx \frac{2}{3}\left( \ln z \right)^{3/2}\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \frac{1}{{(\ln z)^2}} \right),\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.18)

so that \begin{aligned}\rho &\approx \left( \frac{2m}{\hbar^2 } \right)^{3/2} \frac{1}{{ 4 \pi^2}}\left( k_{\mathrm{B}} T \right)^{3/2}\frac{2}{3}\left( \ln z \right)^{3/2}\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \frac{1}{{(\ln z)^2}} \right) \\ &= \left( \frac{2m}{\hbar^2 } \right)^{3/2} \frac{1}{{ 4 \pi^2}}\frac{2}{3}\mu^{3/2}\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \frac{1}{{(\beta \mu)^2}} \right) \\ &= \left( \frac{2m}{\hbar^2 } \right)^{3/2} \frac{1}{{ 4 \pi^2}}\frac{2}{3}\mu^{3/2}\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \left( \frac{k_{\mathrm{B}} T}{\mu} \right)^2 \right) \\ &= \rho_{T = 0}\left( \frac{\mu}{ \epsilon_{\mathrm{F}} } \right)^{3/2}\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \left( \frac{k_{\mathrm{B}} T}{\mu} \right)^2 \right)\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.19)

Assuming a quadratic form for the chemical potential at low temperature as in fig. 1.5, we have \begin{aligned}1 &= \left( \frac{\mu}{ \epsilon_{\mathrm{F}} } \right)^{3/2}\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \left( \frac{k_{\mathrm{B}} T}{\mu} \right)^2 \right) \\ &= \left( \frac{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}} - a T^2}{ \epsilon_{\mathrm{F}} } \right)^{3/2}\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \left( \frac{k_{\mathrm{B}} T}{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}} - a T^2} \right)^2 \right) \\ &\approx \left( 1 - \frac{3}{2} a \frac{T^2}{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}}} \right)\left( 1 + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \frac{(k_{\mathrm{B}} T)^2}{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}}^2} \right) \\ &\approx 1 - \frac{3}{2} a \frac{T^2}{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}}} + \frac{\pi^2}{8} \frac{(k_{\mathrm{B}} T)^2}{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}}^2},\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.20)

or \begin{aligned}a = \frac{\pi^2}{12} \frac{k_{\mathrm{B}}^2}{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}}},\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.21)

We have used a Taylor expansion $(1 + x)^n \approx 1 + n x$ for small $x$, for an end result of \begin{aligned}\mu = \epsilon_{\mathrm{F}} - \frac{\pi^2}{12} \frac{(k_{\mathrm{B}} T)^2}{\epsilon_{\mathrm{F}}}.\end{aligned} \hspace{\stretch{1}}(1.0.22)

# References

 RK Pathria. Statistical mechanics. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1996.